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1 BY∶ 在…旁,靠近;从…;依靠,依据,凭借,以,用;由于;属于

所属教程:英语词组全书

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2020年08月07日

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1 BY∶ 在…旁,靠近;从…;依靠,依据,凭借,以,用;由于;属于

词组讲解

1. by a hair's breadth / by a whisker ** 险些,差一点

解 习语;词义溯源:以[一根头发(a hair)]的[宽度(breadth)]

例 I dropped the hammer and it just missed the man below me by a hair's breadth.

The driver turned the wheel furiously, swerving and getting past the rock by a whisker.

2. by a mile ** 差距很大

解 习语;词义溯源:以[一英里(a mile)]的距离

例 Initial estimates of $40,000-65,000 for the project were off by a mile. The actual final cost was close to half a million dollars.

3. by all appearances ** 从外表推断;就所知推断;显然

解 习语;词义溯源:以[表面(all appearances)]来看

例 By all appearances, this team should be in the 2010 World Cup, but questionable coaching has prevented the Malaysian from reaching their full potential.

4. by all means of sth. / by all means ** 一定,务必;尽一切办法

解 习语;词义溯源:用[所有手段(all means)]

例 We by all means adhere to the code of ethics.

5. by and large ** 大体上,总的来说

解 习语;词义溯源:在旁边[大范围地(large)];源于航海用语

例 By and large, people want to make a positive contribution to society.

6. by any means ** 无论如何,不择手段

解 习语;词义溯源:用[任何手段(any means)]

例 Investigators working on the case were given implicit permission to find the man by any means, legal or illegal.

7. by chance ** 偶然;意外

解 习语;词义溯源:凭借[偶然机会(chance)]

例 I saw John by chance at the mall this weekend. He was shopping with his wife.

8. by choice ** 出于选择;自由地

解 习语;词义溯源:凭借[选择(choice)]

例 Smith testified he met the girl at Fire Disco and that she went home with him by choice, not by force as has been suggested.

9. by coincidence ** 凑巧

解 习语;词义溯源:属于[巧合(coincidence)]

例 By coincidence, our mothers had given us exactly the same leather jacket for Christmas.

10. by dint of sth. ** 依靠,凭借

解 习语;词义溯源:依靠某物的[力量(dint)]

例 It was by dint of time and effort that we overcame the problems.

11. by fits and starts ** 不规则地,间歇地,一阵一阵地

解 〈口〉习语;词义溯源:以[间歇的状态(fits and starts)]

例 Though it was by fits and starts, we managed to get the new team organized and playing in regular games in less than two years.

12. by guess and by golly ** 凭猜测,凭直觉和粗略估计

解 习语;词义溯源:凭着[推测(guess)]和[神(golly)]的帮助

例 None of us had ever built a house before, but we gave it our best try and got it done by guess and by golly.

13. by hook or by crook ** 不择手段,千方百计;无论如何

解 习语;词义溯源:不论是用这个[钩(hook)]还是那个[钩(crook)]

例 This just proves that Norton is determined to win this election by hook or by crook.

14. by leaps and bounds ** 飞跃地,突飞猛进地,迅速地

解 习语;词义溯源:凭借[跳跃(leaps and bounds)]

例 Children start growing by leaps and bounds when they reach puberty.

15. by means of sth. ** 用,依靠

解 习语;词义溯源:依靠某种[方法(means)]

例 The two women were removed from the top of the burning building by means of a crane.

16. by mistake ** 错误地

解 习语;词义溯源:由于[失误(mistake)]

例 Somehow I had picked up another person's umbrella by mistake and had to return to the hotel to return it and find my own.

17. by no means ** 绝不

解 习语;词义溯源:不依靠任何[手段(means)]

例 We're by no means interested in buying the building. We're just curious about it.

18. by return mail ** 以回函方式

解 习语;词义溯源:用[回信(return mail)]

例 We mail the advertisement to homeowners. Those who are interested use the enclosed envelope to order our catalog by return mail.

19. by shank's mare ** 徒步

解 习语;词义溯源:凭着[双腿(shank's mare)]

例 It's easier to park your car and get around by shank's mare downtown.

20. by the day 〔week, month, year〕 ** 按天(星期、月、年等)计算

解 习语;词义溯源:以[天(day)]为单位

例 You can rent the car by the day, by the week or by the month.

21. by the dozen ** 成打

解 习语;词义溯源:以[一打(dozen)]为单位

例 Donuts are usually sold by the dozen. The same goes for eggs.

22. by the dozens ** 大量;数量不确定

解 习语;词义溯源:以[很多打(dozens)]为单位;与by the hundreds意思相近,但是表示的数量要比by the hundreds小

例 In the 1980's huge finance companies bought up small banks by the dozens.

23. by the handful ** 一把;很多

解 习语;词义溯源:以[一把(handful)]为单位

例 Visitors toss peanuts to the elephant by the handful.

Soon after enactment of the law, publishing companies began failing by the handful.

24. by the nape of the neck ** 从脖子后面

解 习语;词义溯源:从[脖子后面(the nape of the neck)]

例 Mother grabbed each of us by the nape of the neck and removed us from the kitchen.

25. by the numbers 〔book〕 ** 根据规则;依据惯例

解 〈口〉习语;词义溯源:依据[数字(numbers)或书本(book)]

例 Inspections are carried out by the numbers. No exceptions are granted.

The rescue was carried out safely because it was done by the book.

26. by the same token ** 同样地;出于相同原因

解 习语;词义溯源:以[同样的特征(the same token)]

例 U.N. peace keeping troops will not carry lethal weapons. By the same token, rebels and the state military will refrain from using theirs.

27. by the seat of one's pants ** 凭本能,凭感觉

解 习语;词义溯源:依靠[臀部(seat of one's pants)]

例 They say we won the game by the seat of our pants. I say luck or no luck, the fact remains that we did win and we are the champions.

28. by the skin of one's teeth ** 侥幸,勉强,好不容易才…

解 习语;词义溯源:凭借[牙齿上的皮肤(skin of one's teeth)]

例 Of course Bruce Willis escaped the building by the skin of his teeth just as it collapsed behind him.

29. by the sweat of one's brow ** 靠自己的辛勤劳动

解 习语;词义溯源:靠[额头上的汗水(the sweat of one's brow)]

例 Gone are the days when farmers grew their crops by the sweat of their brow.

30. by the way ** 顺便说一下,顺便问一下;在途中

解 习语;词义溯源:在[途(way)]中

例 Chris called, by the way. He said he won't be coming tonight.

31. by virtue of sth. ** 由于;依靠,凭借

解 习语;词义溯源:靠…的[功效(virtue)]

例 All three of his sons attended Harvard by virtue of their father's status.

32. by way of sth. ** 经由,途经;通过;以求,为了;当做,作为…之用;行将,快要

解 习语;词义溯源:从[某条路(way)]或靠着[某种方法(way)]

例 After work I go to the London House Pub, by way of Market Square.

Children always learn reading by way of pictures.

33. by word of mouth ** (与书面相对)口头地

解 习语;词义溯源:凭借[嘴里说的话(word of mouth)]

例 News of the incident spread quickly by word of mouth.

参考译文

1. 我的锤子掉了,差点砸到我下面的那个人。

司机猛打方向盘,突然转弯,勉强躲过了岩石。

2. 这个项目的最初预算是4万到6万5千美元,这跟实际情况差得太多了。最终的实际花费接近50万美元。

3. 根据观察判断,马来西亚队本来应该可以晋级2010年世界杯,但是由于教练有问题,这支队伍未能充分发挥他们的潜力。

4. 我们一定遵守道德规范。

5. 总体而言,人们希望能够为社会作出积极贡献。

6. 负责这个案件的调查人员获得默许,可以使用任何合法或非法的手段找到那个人。

7. 我这周末在购物中心偶然碰到了约翰。他正跟他妻子购物呢。

8. 史密斯在证词中称,他是在烈火迪斯科舞厅碰到的这个女孩,并且她是自愿跟他回家的,而不是所谓被暴力胁迫的。

9. 巧的是,我们的妈妈给我们买了一样的皮夹克作为圣诞礼物。

10. 我们凭借付出的时间和努力解决了那些问题。

11. 尽管活动断断续续,但我们还是在不到两年的时间里成功组建了新队伍,并且定期参加比赛。

12. 我们以前都没有盖过房子,但是我们尽了最大努力,并且凭着猜测的方法盖好了房子。

13. 这恰恰证明诺顿决心无论如何都要赢得这次选举。

14. 孩子们到了青春期之后,身体发育就会非常迅速。

15. 那两个被困在失火大楼顶层的女士通过吊车被救了下来。

16. 不知怎么回事,我错拿了别人的伞,因此不得不返回酒店把它还回去,找回自己的伞。

17. 我们对购买这栋大楼一点兴趣也没有。我们只是对它感到好奇而已。

18. 我们把广告邮寄给业主,感兴趣的业主会用随信附送的信封回函订购我们目录上的产品。

19. 在市区,停下车徒步出行会比较方便。

20. 你可以按天、按星期或者按月来租车。

21. 甜甜圈通常是按打卖的。鸡蛋也是一样。

22. 在20世纪80年代,大型金融公司大量收购小型银行。

23. 游客一把一把地把花生扔给大象。

这项法律生效后不久,大批出版公司倒闭。

24. 妈妈从后面抓着我们的脖子,把我们赶出了厨房。

25. 调查是照章办事,没有任何例外。

救援工作的进行是安全的,因为这一工作是依据规定开展的。

26. 联合国维和部队不会携带致命武器。同样,叛军和政府军队也被限制,不可使用其致命武器。

27. 他们说我们是凭感觉赢得的比赛。但是照我说,不论是不是靠运气,最终的结果就是我们赢了,我们是冠军。

28. 当然,布鲁斯·威利斯就在大楼坍塌之前,好不容易才从中逃脱。

29. 农民靠辛勤劳动种庄稼的日子已经一去不复返了。

30. 对了,顺便告诉你,克里斯来过电话。他说他今晚不来了。

31. 凭借他的地位,他的三个儿子都上了哈佛大学。

32. 下班后,我去了伦敦豪斯酒吧,途经市场广场。

孩子通常通过看图来识字。

33. 关于这件事的消息迅速口口相传。


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